First lady in house: Valentina Tereshkova
The primary lady in house, Valentina Tereshkova, blazed a path for the various feminine spaceflyers who would observe. Tereshkova, a Soviet cosmonaut, was chosen from greater than 400 candidates to launch on the Vostok 6 mission June 16, 1963. She was 26 on the time.
Born within the village of Maslennikovo northeast of Moscow, Tereshkova volunteered for the Soviet cosmonaut program after Yuri Gagarin made historical past as the primary man to fly in house on April 12, 1961. She was not a pilot, however had intensive parachuting expertise, with 126 jumps below her belt. (Gagarin parachuted to Earth, ejecting from the Vostok capsule throughout descent as a part of the touchdown sequence.)
Tereshkova was one in every of 4 girls who obtained 18 months of coaching for Vostok 6, and was finally chosen to pilot the flight. The mission launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome two days after Vostok 5, piloted by cosmonaut Valeriy Bykovsky, with the 2 spacecraft’s coming inside three miles (5 kilometers) of one another.
Tereshkova spent 70 hours in house and orbited Earth 48 instances throughout her mission. Although an icon of Soviet house exploration, she by no means flew in house once more and have become a check pilot and teacher.
First American lady in house: Sally Experience
On June 18, 1983, NASA astronaut Sally Ride grew to become the primary U.S. lady in house when she launched on the STS-7 mission of the house shuttle Challenger. She was the third lady in house, after Valentina Tereshkova and Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya, who flew on the Soyuz T-7 mission on Aug. 19, 1982.
Born in Encino, California, Experience studied physics and English at Stanford College, finally incomes a Ph.D. physics in 1973. She joined NASA’s astronaut corps in 1978 as one of many first six feminine astronauts to affix the U.S. house company.
Experience was 32 when the STS-7 mission launched into house. The mission was NASA’s seventh shuttle flight and marked the primary time a lady managed an area shuttle robotic arm. STS-7’s important mission was deploy communications satellites for Canada and Indonesia. Challenger returned to Earth with Experience and her STS-7 crewmates on June 24, wrapping up a six-day flight.
Experience would make historical past once more in 1984 when she launched on the Challenger’s STS-41G mission, starting the primary American lady to fly in house twice.
In 2012, Experience died from cancer at age 61.
First feminine house station commander: Peggy Whitson
NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson grew to become the primary lady to command the Worldwide Area Station when she took the helm of the outpost in April 2008 throughout Expedition 16.
It was science that led to Whitson’s house profession. A local of Mount Ayr, Iowa, Whitson grew up as a hen farmer and earned a Ph.D in biochemistry from Rice College in 1985, after which she started working as a biochemist at NASA as a Nationwide Analysis Council Resident Analysis Affiliate. She formally joined NASA’s Johnson Area Heart as a biochemist in 1989 and served because the mission scienctist for the Shuttle-Mir program in 1992.
In 1996, Whitson was chosen to turn out to be a NASA astronaut and first launched to the Worldwide Area Station as a part of the Expedition 5 crew in 2002. She spent 185 days in house on that flight, and likewise served as NASA’s first official Science Officer on the station.
Then got here Expedition 16, when Whitson took her historic command of the house station. In the course of the 192-day flight, Whitson welcomed a NASA shuttle mission commanded by one other lady, Pamela Melroy, and racked up her profession fifth spacewalk.
On her subsequent spaceflight in 2016, she grew to become the primary lady to command the house station twice when she took command of Expedition 51. She holds the document for being the oldest lady in house, having returned from her final mission at the age of 57.
Whitson retired from NASA in June 2018. She has spent a complete of 665 days in house.
First feminine spacewalker: Svetlana Savitskaya
The primary lady to finish a spacewalk, or extravehicular exercise (EVA), was Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya.
Savitskaya grew to become the second lady to fly in house in August 1982 – 19 years after Valentina Tereshkova’s flight – when she served as a analysis cosmonaut on the house station Salyut 7. She launched on a Soyuz T-7 spacecraft on Aug. 19 , 1982 and spent returned to Earth eight days later.
However it was throughout Savitskaya’s second journey to Salyut 7 in 1984 that she made historical past as the primary lady to stroll in house. She was additionally the primary lady ever to fly in house a second time.
Savitskaya launched with two crewmates aboard Soyuz T-12 on July 17, 184 and spent 12 days on Salyut 7. Her spacewalk occurred on July 24, when she and crewmate Vladimir Dzhanibekov spent greater than three hours spacewalking and performing welding experiments in orbit.
Born in Moscow, Savitskaya was decided to fly at a younger age. She started parachuting at age 16 and joined the Soviet Aerobatics Group at age 18 to carry out daredevil stunts and performances in plane, according to the UK Space Agency. She was chosen to affix the Soviet cosmonaut corps in 1980 and holds a grasp’s diploma in flight engineering.
First U.S. feminine spacewalker: Kathy Sullivan
NASA astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan grew to become the primary American lady to carry out a spacewalk when she floated outdoors the house shuttle Challenger throughout mission STS-41-G on Oct. 11, 1984.
Sullivan’s spacewalk occurred simply months after the first-ever spacewalk by a lady (cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya’s tour in July of that 12 months) throughout Challenger’s nine-day mission to deploy an Earth commentary satellite tv for pc (the Earth Radiation Price range Satellite tv for pc) and reveal satellite tv for pc refueling know-how.
Sullivan holds a Ph.D in geology and joined NASA’s eight class of astronauts in 1978, coaching for spaceflight for six years whereas awaiting her first task. That task was the STS-41-G mission, when she grew to become the primary American lady to stroll in house.
In April 1990, Sullivan returned to house on the shuttle Discovery, this time to assist deploy the Hubble Area Telescope. In 1993, Sullivan left NASA to function chief scientist for NOAA and finally grew to become NOAA’s Administrator in 2014.
First African American lady in house: Mae Jemison
Born in Decatur, Alabama, Jemison grew up in Chicago and earned levels in chemical engineering and African and African-American research at Stanford College, in addition to doctorate in drugs from Cornell College. After working as a physician for a number of years and serving time period within the Peace Corps, Jemison joined NASA as an astronaut in 1987.
Jemison launched into house on Endeavour on Sept. 12, 1992 as a part of the seven-person STS-47 crew. She served as a mission specialist, performing experiments in two bone cell analysis experiments amongst different duties. Endeavour carried a Spacelab module in its payload bay to permit room for greater than 43 totally different research throughout the mission.
Jemison spent simply over 190 hours in house throughout the STS-47 mission and left NASA in March 1993.
First feminine house shuttle commander: Eileen Collins
NASA astronaut Eileen Collins was the primary lady to command an area shuttle mission, a job that required an astronaut to have at the least 1,000 hours of expertise piloting jet plane. Collins commanded the STS-93 house shuttle mission in July 1999, and went on to command a second time in July 2005.
First lady to spend (almost) 1 12 months in house: Christina Koch
In April 2019, NASA introduced that Expedition 59 astronaut Christina Koch’s mission on the Worldwide Area Station can be extended to last 328 days. She broke the document for the longest single spaceflight by a lady — a document that was beforehand held by NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, who spent 289 consecutive days in house from 2016 to 2017. Koch launched to the house station on March 14, 2019 and returned to Earth on Feb. 6, 2020.
First all-female spacewalk
On Oct. 18, 2019, two NASA astronauts made house historical past with the world’s first all-female spacewalk. NASA astronauts Christina Koch (left) and Jessica Meir check their spacesuits for his or her historic Oct. 18, 2019 spacewalk.
NASA astronauts Christina Koch and Jessica Meir went outdoors the Worldwide Area Station on an unplanned restore spacewalk to repair a fault battery part. Koch, a spacewalk veteran, led the EVA whereas Meir carried out her first spacewalk.
Koch and Meir have been a part of the Expedition 61 crew, with Koch additionally flying the primary almost yearlong house mission by a lady. Koch set a brand new document for the longest single spaceflight, having spent 328 consecutive days on board the orbiting laboratory. (The earlier document holder was Peggy Whitson, who spent 289 consecutive days in house.)
First trainer in house: Barbara Morgan
NASA’s authentic plan to ship the primary trainer to house was thwarted when Christa McAuliffe and her six crewmates have been killed aboard the house shuttle Challenger, which was destroyed simply after liftoff on Jan. 28, 1986. Twelve years later, McAuliffe’s backup Barbara Morgan grew to become the primary educator to succeed in orbit below NASA’s Trainer in Area program, when she flew on the STS-118 flight of the shuttle Endeavour in August 2007. She spent a complete of 12 days in house throughout her first and solely spaceflight. Earlier than she joined NASA in 1998, Morgan taught math, science and studying courses to elementary faculty college students in Montana, Idaho and Ecuador for 24 years. She retired from NASA in 2008 to proceed instructing at Boise State College.
First to sequence DNA in house: Kate Rubins
NASA astronaut and microbiologist Kate Rubins became the first researcher to sequence DNA in space throughout her first mission to the Worldwide Area Station in 2016, when she spent 115 days working as a flight engineer for Expedition 48. Rubins, who holds a doctorate in most cancers biology from Stanford College, sequenced DNA samples from a mouse, a virus and micro organism to check a commercially out there DNA sequencing gadget known as MinION.
“With a method to sequence DNA in house, astronauts may diagnose an sickness, or establish microbes rising within the Worldwide Area Station and decide whether or not or not they signify a well being risk,” NASA officers mentioned in a statement. “An area-based DNA sequencer can be an vital software to assist defend astronaut well being throughout lengthy period missions on the journey to Mars, and future explorers may additionally probably use the know-how to establish DNA-based life types past Earth.”
First Briton in house: Helen Sharman
British meals chemist and personal citizen Helen Sharman grew to become the primary British individual to fly in house when she visited the Mir house station aboard the Soyuz TM-12 in Might 1991. Throughout this flight, she additionally grew to become the primary lady to go to the Mir space station.
Sharman’s highway to house was a bit totally different from the skilled astronauts and cosmonauts of NASA and Russia’s Roscosmos company.
In 1989, Sharman answered a radio commercial calling for candidates to fly in house as a part of Mission Juno, a collaboration between personal British corporations and the Soviet Union to launch a Briton into house. She beat out almost 13,000 different candidates to win the coveted spot and spent 18 months coaching to fly on Russia’s Soyuz spacecraft.
Sharman launched to Mir on Might 18, 2991 and spent eight days in house performing organic and crystal development experiments, in addition to speaking with British schoolchildren through radio.
First Canadian lady in house: Roberta Bondar
Roberta Bondar grew to become Canada’s first feminine astronaut when she flew on the STS-42 house shuttle mission in 1992.
First Japanese lady in house: Chiaki Mukai
The primary Japanese lady in house was Chiaki Mukai, representing the Nationwide Area Improvement Company of Japan (NASDA). Mukai flew on the house shuttle Columbia throughout mission STS-65 in July 1994. On the time, she set the document for the longest flight so far by a feminine astronaut.
First French lady in house: Claudie Haigneré
Physician Claudie Haigneré grew to become the primary and solely French lady to journey to house when she flew to the Russian house station Mir in 1996. In 2001, she grew to become the primary European lady to go to the Worldwide Area Station.
First lady to affix an ISS crew: Susan Helms
The primary feminine member of an International Space Station crew was NASA astronaut Susan Helms, who served as a flight engineer throughout the Expedition 2 mission from March to August 2001.
First feminine house vacationer: Anousheh Ansari
Iranian-American entrepreneur Anousheh Ansari grew to become the primary feminine house vacationer when she funded her personal method to the Worldwide Area Station aboard a Russian Soyuz house capsule in 2006 by means of the agency Area Adventures.
First South Korean in house: Yi So-yeon
South Korean astronaut Yi So-yeon grew to become her nation’s first house traveler when she rode to the Worldwide Area Station on Russia’s Soyuz TMA-12 in April 2008.
First marathon in house: Suni Williams
NASA astronaut Sunita Williams grew to become the primary individual to run a marathon in house throughout the Expedition 15 mission in 2007. She formally registered for the Boston Marathon and ran 26 miles in four miles and 26 minutes on the Mixed Operational Load Bearing Exterior Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) within the Tranquility node of the Worldwide Area Station.
China’s 1st feminine taikonaut: Liu Wang
China’s first feminine astronaut Liu Wang waves to supporters whereas clad in a spacesuit simply earlier than boarding the Shenzhou 9 house capsule for a profitable June 19, 2012 launch from the Jiuquan Satellite tv for pc Launch Heart.
Most time in house: Peggy Whitson
The lady who has spent essentially the most whole time in house is Peggy Whitson, who has logged 665 days, 22 hours and 22 minutes in orbit over the span of three journeys to the Worldwide Area Station. When she returned from her last journey to house in 2017, she had logged extra hours in house than any U.S. astronaut — male or feminine.
4 girls in house
4 girls serving collectively on the Worldwide Area Station on April 14, 2010, represented the best variety of girls in house concurrently. Clockwise from decrease proper are NASA astronauts Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Stephanie Wilson, each STS-131 mission specialists; and Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Expedition 23 flight engineer; together with Japan Aerospace Exploration Company (JAXA) astronaut Naoko Yamazaki, STS-131 mission specialist.